This table details drinking guidelines issued by government bodies regarding alcohol consumption by women who may become pregnant, are pregnant, or are breastfeeding, in all countries for which IARD has been able to verify the information with the respective national authorities or through publicly accessible documents. Recommendations for other healthy adults are detailed separately in the table Drinking guidelines: General population. Standard drinks are shown in grams of ethanol.
It is updated on an ongoing basis as government entities publish and revise their guidelines.
International Alliance for Responsible Drinking (IARD). (2019). Drinking guidelines for pregnancy and breastfeeding. Retrieved from https://iard.org/science-resources/detail/Drinking-Guidelines-for-Pregnancy-and-Breastfeedin
If you find any of the information outdated, please email us at RegDB@iard.org.
The resources on this website are not intended as health advice to individuals about their drinking. People with specific questions about their drinking are encouraged to consult a healthcare professional. Together, they can determine what is best for that individual, based on individual risk factors, including family history, genetics, and lifestyle. For some people, the better choice may be to not drink at all.
IARD Policy Tables are provided for informational purposes only, and should not be construed as legal advice on any subject matter. All IARD materials include a date of content review and they should be read in their entirety and not misrepresented or taken out of context.
|Country/Territory||Authority||Standard drink g||Guidelines pre-pregnancy||Guidelines pregnancy||Guidelines breastfeeding|
|Albania||Department of Public Health Recommendations on Healthy Nutrition in Albania (2008)||10||-||Pregnant women should avoid taking alcohol.||Avoid alcohol during breastfeeding.|
|Andorra||Government of Andorra, National strategy for nutrition, sport and health: Practical advice 4. Diet and physical activity during pregnancy, breastfeeding and infancy||[none]||-||Avoid consumption of alcohol beverages from the first day of pregnancy, since it is not known exactly what dose entails risk for the neurological development of the fetus.||Do not drink alcohol while breastfeeding.|
|Argentina||Ministry of Health, Dietary guidelines for the population of Argentina (2015)||300-350 mL beer, 150 mL wine, or 45 mL spirit||-||Always avoid alcohol beverages.||-|
|Armenia||Ministry of Health,
Order 191 of 16 February 2010 Adult dietary guidelines
Leaflet for healthy nutrition of pregnant and nursing mothers (UNICEF 2013)
|[none]||2010: Do not use alcohol if you are pregnant or planning to become pregnant, or breastfeeding.||2010: Do not use alcohol if you are pregnant or planning to become pregnant, or breastfeeding.
2013: During pregnancy you should not: ... Use alcohol, which can cause various mental and physical disorders of the fetus;
|2010: Do not use alcohol if you are pregnant or planning to become pregnant, or breastfeeding.
2013: Alcohol gets into breast milk, so do not drink alcohol. Remember that no alcohol beverage promotes milk production.
|Australia||National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC), Australian guidelines to reduce health risks from drinking alcohol 2020||10||
To prevent harm from alcohol to their unborn child, women who are pregnant or planning a pregnancy should not drink alcohol.
|To prevent harm from alcohol to their unborn child, women who are pregnant or planning a pregnancy should not drink alcohol.||For women who are breastfeeding, not drinking alcohol is safest for their baby.|
|Austria||Federal Ministry of Health and Women, Factsheet: Dialogue week on alcohol (2019)||[none]||-||Drinking alcohol during pregnancy can cause prenatal damage. To protect the unborn child, every woman should completely abstain from alcohol during pregnancy.||Alcohol and breastfeeding: Alcohol should be avoided during breast-feeding. Breastfeeding mothers should not be impaired when breastfeeding and both parents should in principle treat alcohol responsibly in the sense of their role model effect and in the interests of their children. This affects both mothers and fathers in all phases of their children's lives.|
Belgian Federal Public Service Health, Campaign: Alcohol and pregnancy (2018)
|10||-||During pregnancy and breastfeeding, alcohol consumption is harmful to your baby.||During pregnancy and breastfeeding, alcohol consumption is harmful to your baby.|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||Institute for Public Health, Guide on nutrition for the adult population (2004)||10||-||Pregnant women should refrain from drinking alcohol !||-|
|Botswana||Ministry of Health, "Making Pregnancy Safer"||[none]||-||When you realize you are pregnant, avoid alcohol.||-|
|Bulgaria||Ministry of Health, Recommendations for healthy eating before and during pregnancy and while breastfeeding (2008)||8||It is recommended that women who are trying to become pregnant not consume alcohol. If you consume alcohol beverages, quantities should be limited: no more than one or two units of alcohol once or twice a week. One unit is equivalent to a small glass of wine or one glass of beer or 25 ml of spirits.||Drinking alcohol during pregnancy can cause fetal harm therefore pregnant women are advised not to consume alcohol beverages. If they do consume alcohol, to ensure minimal risk to the baby, pregnant women may consume no more than one glass of wine or beer or 25ml of spirits once a week.||While breastfeeding it is recommended not to consume alcohol beverages or to severely limit their consumption.|
|Canada||Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse, Low-risk Drinking Guidelines (2018)
Public Health Agency of Canada, The Sensible Guide to a Healthy Pregnancy
|13.6||Low-risk Drinking Guidelines: The safest choice is to drink no alcohol at all.||Low-risk Drinking Guidelines: The safest choice is to drink no alcohol at all.
The Sensible Guide to a Healthy Pregnancy: There is no safe amount or safe time to drink alcohol during pregnancy.
|Low-risk Drinking Guidelines: The safest choice is to drink no alcohol at all.|
|Chile||Chile Crece Contigo, integrated infant protection web portal established by Law 20.379 as part of the Multi-sector Social Protection System||14||-||Recommendations for care during pregnancy include not drinking alcohol.||-|
|China||Chinese Nutrition Society, Chinese Dietary Guidelines (2016)||[none]||-||Pregnant women should not drink alcohol.||Breastfeeding women should not drink alcohol.|
|Chinese Taipei||Health Promotion Administration of the Ministry of Health and Welfare,
Eat smart: Healthy eating habits (2021, based on 2018 Dietary index handbook)
Breastfeeding handbook (undated)
|10||-||Never drink alcohol during pregnancy.||While breastfeeding, it is best not to drink alcohol.
If consuming food with cooking wine, alter the cooking method to make sure the alcohol is eliminated.
|Cyprus||Ministry of Health, Breastfeeding: Off to the best start for your baby (2014)||[none]||-||-||Alcohol should be avoided.|
|Denmark||National Board of Health, Healthy Habits Before, During and After Pregnancy||12||As it is often difficult to know the exact time of conception, you should not drink alcohol if you are planning on having a baby.||No exact limit is known for how little a pregnant woman can drink without harming her unborn baby. The recommendation is therefore for pregnant women not to drink any alcohol at all.||For each unit of alcohol consumed, it takes 2-3 hours before the milk is free from alcohol again. ... Drink a minimum of alcohol when breastfeeding.|
|Estonia||Health Development Institute, Alkoinfo.ee (2016)
Estonian Nutrition Society, Recommendations during pregnancy (2016)
|10||Alkoinfo.ee: You should not drink alcohol at all if you are pregnant, breast-feeding a child, or planning to become pregnant. Women who consume alcohol over the low-risk limits may take longer to get pregnant, and may experience problems with menstruation and fertility. If a woman has difficulty becoming pregnant, one thing which could help is abstaining from alcohol.
Nutrition recommendations: Alcohol consumption in large quantities affects a woman's fertility. Large amounts of alcohol during the initial period (more than 80 g of pure alcohol a day) can significantly affect fetal development. It is therefore recommended that pregnant women and those planning pregnancy completely give up alcohol use.
|Alkoinfo.ee: When a woman consumes alcohol during pregnancy, the risk of birth defects increases. This is particularly true in the first 8 to 12 weeks of gestation. Thus, it is the safest to avoid alcohol altogether during pregnancy.
Nutrition recommendations: Large amounts of alcohol during the initial period (more than 80 g of pure alcohol a day) can significantly affect fetal development. It is therefore recommended that pregnant women and those planning pregnancy completely give up alcohol use.
|Alkoinfo.ee: The amount of alcohol in breastmilk is similar to what it is the mother's bloodstream. For half an hour to an hour after drinking the amount is the largest. If you drink while eating, then 60-90 minutes. One unit of alcohol from is eliminated from the body in one to two hours. ... Alcohol in the breastmilk will result in the anxiety and sleep disorders for the child, as well as delay in motor skill development. In addition, alcohol can affect the production of breast milk. During breastfeeding, you should definitely avoid alcohol.|
|Fiji||Ministry of Health and Medical Services, Alcohol: Healthy you (2015)
National Food and Nutrition Center, Food and Health Guidelines for Fiji (2013)
|10||Alcohol Healthy you: You should not drink any alcohol when pregnant or planning to become pregnant.||Alcohol Healthy you: Drinking alcohol when pregnant poses many harmful risks to your unborn baby. It is not safe for pregnant women to drink any alcohol.
Food and Health Guidelines: Excessive alcohol consumption by the mother during pregnancy slows the growth of the baby: it can also lead to premature births, deaths and miscarriages.
|Finland||National Institute for Health and Welfare, Factsheet: Alcohol health risks for healthy adults (2016)||12||Heavy alcohol use reduces both women's and men's fertility. Excessive alcohol use should be avoided if planning to become pregnant.||The amount of alcohol exposure that poses risk for the fetus is not known, so it is safest to give up the consumption of alcohol during pregnancy.||Heavy episodic drinking during breastfeeding may be harmful to the child's development and from a mother-child relationship point of view.|
|France||Alcool-info-service (May 2017), based on Public Health France and National Cancer Institute, Expert opinion (May 2017) commissioned by the Interministerial Mission for Combating Drugs and Addictive Behaviors (MILDECA) and the Ministry of Health Directorate General of Health (DGS)
National Program Nutrition and Health 2017-2021, Pregnancy: Foods to avoid
|10||-||Alcool-info-service (May 2017): In the following situations, it is safest not to drink alcohol at all: For the duration of pregnancy and while breastfeeding. ... Current scientific evidence does not allow us to determine a level of alcohol consumption or a quantity of alcohol that would be without risk for the unborn child. By virtue of the precautionary principle, it is recommended that pregnant women abstain from any alcohol consumption for the entire duration of their pregnancy.
National Program Nutrition and Health: The effects of alcohol are due to its capacity to pass into our blood. IN the pregnant woman’s body, alcohol also passes into the baby’s blood. Alcohol is toxic to your child and constitutes a risk to neurological development, regardless of the amount of alcohol you drink. Avoid all alcohol beverages (spirits, wines, beers,…) and also foods containing alcohol.
|Alcool-info-service (May 2017): In the following situations, it is safest not to drink alcohol at all: For the duration of pregnancy and while breastfeeding.|
|Germany||Federal Center for Health Education, Know your limit, Nutrition recommendations during pregnancy
Center for Addiction Issues, Factsheet: Alcohol and Health Risks (2015)
|[none]||-||It makes little difference whether you drink alcohol during the first weeks of pregnancy or toward the end. Alcohol consumption poses a major threat to the child's development in all stages of pregnancy. Therefore refrain entirely from alcohol beverages throughout pregnancy and while breastfeeding your baby's sake.
The best protection for the unborn child is total abstinence from alcohol throughout pregnancy. However, at the very beginning of pregnancy many women still do not know that they are pregnant. If pregnant women have drunk alcohol in the initial days ... they should not fear the worst. In advanced pregnancy: abstinence by the mother is the only reliable method to protect the unborn child from the possibility of serious damage, such as a severe fetal alcohol syndrome.
|If you are breastfeeding: drinking alcohol not only increases your blood alcohol level, but also the alcohol content in breast milk. Avoid alcohol during lactation and abstain as long as you breastfeed your child. Only with non-alcohol milk can your baby can find a restful sleep-wake cycle.
|Iceland||Directorate of Health Nutrition, Alcohol, drugs and pregnancy (2005)||[none]||-||As soon as it is clear that a child is coming, the expectant mother should cease consuming alcohol. If this is difficult, it is important to seek advice from the doctor or midwife who care for her. They can provide support and advice. Even if a woman consumed alcohol during the first weeks of pregnancy before she realizes that she is pregnant, it is always beneficial to stop consumption.||It is desirable to limit alcohol consumption while the baby is breastfeeding.|
|India||National Drug Dependence Treatment Center, Alcohol web India: Useful tips for lower-risk drinking (2016)
National Institute of Nutrition, Dietary guidelines for Indians 2011
|Alcohol web India: Remember not to drink when pregnant of trying to become pregnant.||Alcohol web India: Remember not to drink when pregnant of trying to become pregnant.
Dietary guidelines: Do not take alcohol.
|Dietary guidelines: Avoid alcohol.|
|Ireland||Health Service Executive,
Weekly low-risk drinking guidelines (2019)
Alcohol and pregnancy (2020)
Alcohol and breastfeeding (2018, due to be reviewed in November 2021)
|10||No amount of alcohol at any stage of pregnancy is safe for your baby.
You may be planning to become pregnant. If you are, aim to stop drinking while you are trying to conceive (get pregnant) and during your pregnancy. This will avoid any risk to your baby.
|No amount of alcohol at any stage of pregnancy is safe for your baby.
If you are pregnant and have been drinking alcohol: You are advised to stop drinking alcohol for the rest of your pregnancy. If you do, your baby has a better chance of healthy brain growth and development. Some women find it hard to stop drinking. If you find it hard to stop, your GP, midwife or a local substance misuse service can help you.
|It’s best to avoid drinking alcohol until your baby is more than 1 month old. In the first few weeks, you and your baby are getting used to breastfeeding. This is called establishing breastfeeding. If you choose to drink alcohol once breastfeeding is established, there are steps you can take to avoid passing alcohol to your baby through your milk:
- Feed your baby before drinking alcohol.
- Express your breast milk beforehand if you plan to drink more than 2 standard drinks - 1 standard drink is a half a pint of beer, a single measure of spirits or a small glass of wine.
- Wait 2 hours after each standard drink before breastfeeding your baby.
- Drink no more than 11 standard drinks in a week.
- Spread your drinks over the week.
- Have at least 2 alcohol-free days per week.
|Israel||Ministry of Health, Proper nutrition During Pregnancy||[none]||Alcohol consumption should be avoided prior to becoming pregnant and throughout the entire pregnancy.||Alcohol consumption should be avoided prior to becoming pregnant and throughout the entire pregnancy.||Alcohol is conveyed directly to the fetus during pregnancy via the placenta, and during nursing it is conveyed via breast milk.|
|Italy||National Center for Epidemiology, Surveillance and Health Promotion,
Alcohol: Do you know your drinks? The more you know, the lower the risk (2016)
Alcohol during pregnancy: Are you sure? (2015)
|12||There are situations where complete abstention from alcohol consumption is recommended: If planning pregnancy, pregnant or breastfeeding.
If you are planning to have a child or if you are pregnant the best choice for the mother and the unborn child is not to consume alcohol beverages of any kind.
|There are situations where complete abstention from alcohol consumption is recommended: If planning pregnancy, pregnant or breastfeeding.
If you are planning to have a child or if you are pregnant the best choice for the mother and the unborn child is not to consume alcohol beverages of any kind.
|There are situations where complete abstention from alcohol consumption is recommended: If planning pregnancy, pregnant or breastfeeding.
|Japan||Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare
Drinking guidelines (2018)
|10||-||Do not drink alcohol during pregnancy and breastfeeding, as it may inhibit the development of the fetus and cause fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcohol also enters breastfeeding breast milk and inhibits infant development.||Do not drink alcohol during pregnancy and breastfeeding, as it may inhibit the development of the fetus and cause fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcohol also enters breastfeeding breast milk and inhibits infant development.|
|Korea, Republic of||Korea Health Promotion Foundation, Low-risk Drinking Guidelines 2013||8||You should not drink alcohol at all.||You should not drink alcohol at all.||You should not drink alcohol at all.|
|Lithuania||Health and Prevention Training Center, Kaunas Medical University,
Healthy Eating Guidelines (2010) Endorsed by Ministry of Health
Ministry of Health, Healthy Eating Recommendations,
Dietary recommendations for pregnancy and breastfeeding women (2020)
|10||-||Women consuming alcohol during pregnancy can give birth to newborns with congenital malformations.
There is no safe dose for alcohol consumption; alcohol dose or form is harmful during pregnancy planning, pregnancy and lactation.
|It is safest not to drink alcohol while breastfeeding.|
|Luxembourg||Ministry of Health,
0% Alcohol: Information for your pregnancy (2013)
|10||Give up alcohol when planning to become pregnant, or as soon as you find out that you are.||Give up alcohol when planning to become pregnant, or as soon as you find out that you are.||While breastfeeding, the safest choice is also to give up alcohol.|
|Malta||Parliamentary Secretariat for Health, Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Directorate,
Agency against Drug and Alcohol Abuse (Agenzija Sedqa), It's not the drinking.. It's how we’re drinking
|8||Agenzija Sedqa:There are situations where a person should not drink alcohol since even the smallest amount can be harmful: Pregnant women, women who believe they may be pregnant or women who may be trying to become pregnant.||Dietary guidelines: Avoid alcohol completely if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.
Agenzija Sedqa: There are situations where a person should not drink alcohol since even the smallest amount can be harmful: Pregnant women, women who believe they may be pregnant or women who may be trying to become pregnant.
|Dietary guidelines: Avoid alcohol completely if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.|
|Mauritius||Ministry of Health, Dietary guidelines for the prevention of NCDs||300 mL beer, 75 mL wine, or 25 mL spirit||-||Avoid alcohol.||Avoid alcohol.|
|Netherlands||Health Council of the Netherlands, Scientific report on revisions to Guidelines for Healthy Eating 2015
Nutrition Center, Guidelines for Healthy Eating 2011
|10||It is recommended not to drink.||It is recommended not to drink.||It is recommended not to drink.|
|New Zealand||Ministry of Health, Eating and Activity Guidelines 2020
Health Promotion Agency, Alcohol.org.nz
|10||Stop drinking alcohol if you could be pregnant, are pregnant or are trying to get pregnant. ... if you are trying to get pregnant, it’s best not to drink alcohol. Alcohol can harm a baby from conception onwards.||Stop drinking alcohol if you could be pregnant, are pregnant or are trying to get pregnant. There is no known safe level of alcohol consumption during pregnancy. ... Alcohol can harm a baby from conception onwards.||While breastfeeding it's best to be alcohol free. Alcohol enters your breast milk and passes to your baby. This can affect your baby’s growth and development. If you choose to drink when breastfeeding, plan ahead. Only breastfeed when there’s no alcohol in your system. It takes about two hours for your body to breakdown one standard drink of alcohol. If you drink more than this you will need to wait longer before breastfeeding.
While we do not recommend drinking any alcohol at this time, if a woman chooses to drink alcohol while breastfeeding she should:
- avoid drinking alcohol during the first month of breastfeeding and at least until breastfeeding is well established (NHMRC 2009a)
- consider expressing milk before drinking alcohol to ensure alcohol-free breast milk is available for her baby (NHMRC 2009a)
- wait for at least two hours after one standard drink before breastfeeding again, though the appropriate length of time will vary for individual women depending on their weight and metabolism (NHMRC 2009a). The longer the time between drinking alcohol and breastfeeding, the less the potential impact is for the baby (NHMRC 2009a)
- make sure the baby always has a sober caregiver looking after them who is alert to their needs
- never fall asleep on a bed or sofa with an infant if she has had any alcohol. This applies to any other caregivers as well.
The Feed Safe app helps a breastfeeding woman to make safe decisions by using height, weight and alcohol intake to estimate when her breast milk should be free of alcohol. It is based on the official guidelines of Australia’s National Health and Medical Research Council.
|North Macedonia||Ministry of Health, Nutrition Guidelines for the Population of Macedonia (2014)||14||Women who are pregnant or plan to become pregnant should avoid alcohol altogether.||Women who are pregnant or plan to become pregnant should avoid alcohol altogether. There is no safe level of alcohol which is allowed to be consumed during pregnancy.||-|
|Norway||Directorate of Health, Norwegian Guidelines on Diet, Nutrition and Physical Activity (2014)
Directorate of e-health, Pregnancy and alcohol page (2017)
You should always avoid alcohol while pregnant or trying to get pregnant. The chances of getting pregnant increase if you do not drink alcohol, because alcohol reduces fertility.
|Pregnant women are advised to avoid alcohol.
If you are concerned because you drank alcohol in early pregnancy, you should talk to your midwife or doctor. ... you are not alone in this situation. The less you drank, the lower the risk of fetal development is affected. Think ahead and stay completely away from alcohol for the remainder of the pregnancy. Every day without alcohol will give the child a better start in life.
|Breastfeeding women are advised to avoid alcohol.
Newborns are immature, with minimal ability to break down even small amounts of alcohol. Therefore, you should abstain completely from alcohol until at least six weeks after birth. If drinking later on while breastfeeding, you should stick to small amounts.
|Paraguay||National Nutrition and Food Institute, Dietary guidelines of Paraguay: Family group||[none]||-||If a woman is pregnant, she should not consume alcohol, because it could affect the health of her baby.||-|
|Philippines||Food and Nutrition Research Institute, Nutritional Guidelines for Filipinos (2012)||12||-||
|Poland||State Agency for Prevention of Alcohol Related Problems, National Programme for Preventing and Resolving Alcohol-Related Problems 2011-2015
||10||-||Pregnant, breastfeeding and hormonally imbalanced women are advised to avoid alcohol altogether.||Pregnant, breastfeeding and hormonally imbalanced women are advised to avoid alcohol altogether.|
|Portugal||Ministry of Health, New Daily Food Choice Food Wheel (2008)||[none]||-||Pregnant and breastfeeding women are advised to abstain.||Pregnant and breastfeeding women are advised to abstain.|
|Serbia||Institute for Mental Health, Responsible Drinking Guidelines (2014)||12.8-13.4||-||Pregnant women should avoid alcohol altogether.||-|
|Sierra Leone||Food-based dietary guidelines for healthy eating 2016||-||... those who are contemplating becoming pregnant, should avoid alcohol.||Pregnant women should not drink any alcohol, including beer and wine, including commercial and homemade brews and spirits throughout their pregnancy...||[You] should not drink any alcohol, including beer and wine, including commercial and homemade brews and spirits ... while breastfeeding.|
|Singapore||Health Promotion Board,
Pregnancy and Diet (2015)
Don't Toast to Your Baby's Health (2015)
|8 to 10||When pregnant, or trying to become pregnant, ideally you should: Cut right back on drinking if you drink alcohol.||When pregnant, or trying to become pregnant, ideally you should: Cut right back on drinking if you drink alcohol.
If you have one or two drinks of alcohol (one or two units), once or twice a week, it is unlikely to harm your unborn baby. However, the amount of alcohol that is safe in pregnancy is not definitely known. Heavy or frequent drinking can seriously harm the baby's development.
|...whatever you drink or eat passes to your child through breastmilk. Excessive alcohol use during nursing can also disrupt the flow of your breastmilk, so it’s best not to consume alcohol while breastfeeding.|
|Slovenia||Institute of Public Health of Slovenia, Alcohol consumption and its dangers in pregnancy||10||Do not consume alcohol||Do not consume alcohol||Do not consume alcohol|
|South Africa||Department of Health, MomConnect mobile pregnancy care advice program (2014)||[none]||-||The mobile pregnancy and infancy support service MomConnect includes messages on alcohol consumption during pregnancy such as
“Congrats on your pregnancy! Your baby is just the size of a small seed but you can help your baby grow. Eat vegetables and fruit, don't smoke or drink alcohol”
“Smoking, illegal drugs and alcohol are all dangerous for you and your baby. Now is a good time to give up if you can. Ask for help at the clinic”
|Spain||Ministry of Health, Social Services, and Equality,
Healthy lifestyles: Alcohol and pregnancy (2016)
Alcohol during pregnancy pamphlet
|10||Healthy Lifestyles (2016): If you are pregnant or in the process of becoming so, avoid drinking alcohol.
Alcohol and pregnancy: It is best to stop drinking alcohol several weeks before conceiving, because pregnancy can only be confirmed after several weeks. ... That is, before discontinuing contraceptive methods.
|Healthy Lifestyles (2016): Currently there is no scientific consensus on a level of risk or a threshold below which alcohol is not teratogenic, however, there is agreement on the recommendation: during pregnancy, alcohol should not be consumed. ... If you are pregnant or in the process of becoming so, avoid drinking alcohol.
Alcohol during pregnancy: Can I drink alcohol during pregnancy? No. Drinking alcohol during pregnancy increases the risk that the baby will have birth defects.
|Healthy Lifestyles (2016): The recommendation is that during breastfeeding, alcohol beverages should not be consumed, and if they are, breastfeeding should not occur until the alcohol has been eliminated by the body.|
|Sri Lanka||Ministry of Health, Food based dietary guidelines for Sri Lankans 2011||[none]||-||For an optimal pregnancy outcome, avoid alcohol.||-|
|Suriname||Psychiatric Health Center, E-health.sr||[none]||Do not drink during pregnancy or if planning to become pregnant.||Do not drink during pregnancy or if planning to become pregnant.||-|
|Sweden||National Food Administration, Nutrition and eating habits (2019)
|[none]||Alcohol passes into your baby through the placenta. The fetus is more sensitive to alcohol than you are, so refrain from alcohol as soon as you think you are pregnant.||Alcohol has no positive effects on breastfeeding. According to current research, however, it involves no medical risks for the child if you consume moderate amounts of alcohol when you are breastfeeding, that is to say 1-2 glasses of wine or its equivalent 1-2 times a week. The amount of alcohol that the child can ingest with the milk is very small.|
|Switzerland||Federal Alcohol Commission (EKAL), Guidance on alcohol consumption (2018)||10||women who are planning to become pregnant are advised to abstain from alcohol||Pregnant women are advised to abstain from alcohol.||Messaging 2015: It is also recommended to abstain while breastfeeding. Alcohol enters the infant's body through breastmilk. If a women drinks at all while breastfeeding, she should do so in moderation. In order for alcohol to be eliminated from the body before the feeding occasion, allow two hours for a standard drink and four hours for two standard drinks.|
|Turkey||Ministry of Health, Turkey dietary guidelines (2016)||-||-||... pregnant women, breastfeeding women, ... should never consume alcohol.||... pregnant women, breastfeeding women, ... should never consume alcohol.|
|United Kingdom||Department of Health, UK Chief Medical Officers’ Low Risk Drinking Guidelines 2016
Department of Health, Start4Life web portal
Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, Alcohol and Pregnancy: Information for You (2015) next review date 2018
|8||Department of Health: The Chief Medical Officers’ guideline is that: If you think you could become pregnant, the safest approach is not to drink alcohol at all, to keep risks to your baby to a minimum.
Alcohol and Pregnancy: Information for You: If you are planning a pregnancy, it is advisable not to drink alcohol at all during this time. Either partner drinking heavily (over six units per day) before pregnancy can make it more difficult to conceive.
|The Chief Medical Officers’ guideline is that: If you are pregnant, the safest approach is not to drink alcohol at all, to keep risks to your baby to a minimum. Drinking in pregnancy can lead to long-term harm to the baby, with the more you drink the greater the risk. The risk of harm to the baby is likely to be low if you have drunk only small amounts of alcohol before you knew you were pregnant or during pregnancy. If you find out you are pregnant after you have drunk alcohol during early pregnancy, you should avoid further drinking. You should be aware that it is unlikely in most cases that your baby has been affected. If you are worried about alcohol use during pregnancy do talk to your doctor or midwife.
Alcohol and Pregnancy: Information for You: If you choose to drink, to minimize the risk to your baby, don’t drink more than 1-2 units of alcohol – that’s the same as a small glass of wine – once or twice a week. And don’t get drunk. Use the Change4Life drinks checker to find out how many units of alcohol are in the most common drinks.
|Alcohol and Pregnancy: Information for You: You should not drink more than one or two units, more than once or twice a week.|
|United States||Department of Agriculture and Department of Health and Human Services, Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2020-2025
Surgeon General's Advisory on Alcohol Use in Pregnancy (2005)
|14||Dietary Guidelines 2020-2025: The Dietary Guidelines does not recommend that individuals who do not drink alcohol start drinking for any reason. There are also some people who should not drink at all, such as if they are pregnant or might be pregnant;...
Surgeon General's Advisory 2005: A woman who is considering becoming pregnant should abstain from alcohol. Recognizing that nearly half of all births in the United States are unplanned, women of childbearing age should consult their physician and take steps to reduce the possibility of prenatal alcohol exposure.
|Dietary Guidelines 2020-2025: The Dietary Guidelines does not recommend that individuals who do not drink alcohol start drinking for any reason. There are also some people who should not drink at all, such as if they are pregnant or might be pregnant;...
Surgeon General's Advisory 2005: A pregnant woman should not drink alcohol during pregnancy. A pregnant woman who has already consumed alcohol during her pregnancy should stop in order to minimize further risk.
|Uruguay||Ministry of Health, Food Guide for the Uruguayan Population (2016)||10||-||... pregnant women should not drink alcohol.||-|
|Venezuela||National Nutrition Institute, Healthy living recommendations
||[none]||-||Pregnant and breastfeeding women should eliminate the consumption of alcohol beverages.||Pregnant and breastfeeding women should eliminate the consumption of alcohol beverages.|
|Vietnam||National Institute of Nutrition, Maternal nutrition (2010)||10||-||During pregnancy and breastfeeding, …do not use alcohol.||During pregnancy and breastfeeding, …do not use alcohol.|