Drinking Guidelines for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

This table details drinking guidelines issued by government bodies regarding alcohol consumption by people attempting to become pregnant, who are pregnant, or are breastfeeding, in all countries for which IARD has been able to verify the information with the respective national authorities or through publicly accessible documents. Recommendations for other healthy adults are detailed separately in the table Drinking guidelines: General population. Standard drinks are shown in grams of ethanol, or as described in the source document. 

For more details, see What goes in the IARD Policy Tables?

It is updated on an ongoing basis as government entities publish and revise their guidelines. IARD last conducted a review of records across all countries in March-July 2022. 

 

Suggested citation: 

International Alliance for Responsible Drinking (IARD). (2022). Drinking guidelines for pregnancy and breastfeeding. Retrieved from https://iard.org/science-resources/detail/Drinking-Guidelines-for-Pregnancy-and-Breastfeedin 

If you find any of the information outdated, please email us at RegDB@iard.org.
 
The resources on this website are not intended as health advice to individuals about their drinking. People with specific questions about their drinking are encouraged to consult a healthcare professional. Together, they can determine what is best for that individual, based on individual risk factors, including family history, genetics, and lifestyle. For some people, the better choice may be to not drink at all.  

IARD Policy Tables are provided for informational purposes only, and should not be construed as legal advice on any subject matter. All IARD materials include a date of content review and they should be read in their entirety and not misrepresented or taken out of context.

Country/Territory Authority Standard drink g Guidelines pre-pregnancy Guidelines pregnancy Guidelines breastfeeding
Afghanistan [n/a] Sale is prohibited. [n/a] [n/a] [n/a] [n/a]
Albania Department of Public Health, Recommendations on Healthy Nutrition in Albania (2008)  10 [none found] Avoid taking alcoholic beverages during pregnancy. Avoid alcoholic beverages and products which contain caffeine, during breastfeeding the baby; avoid totally super alcoholic beverages (ethyl alcohol passes to the milk and makes the baby feel asleep, have hypoglycemia, diarrhea, etc.); avoid wine, even if it has low percentage of alcohol. It can be taken in any rare case but always with food.
Andorra National strategy for nutrition, sport and health: Practical advice 4. Diet and physical activity during pregnancy, breastfeeding and infancy [none found] [none found] Avoid consumption of alcohol beverages from the first day of pregnancy, since it is not known exactly what dose entails risk for the neurological development of the fetus. Do not drink alcohol while breastfeeding.
Angola [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Antigua and Barbuda [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Argentina Ministry of Health,
Dietary Guidelines for the Argentinian Population (2015) The guidelines are due for revision beginning in 2022.

Alcohol - Responsible consumption (2022)
Recommendations to stop drinking alcohol (2022)
14

300-350 mL beer, 150 mL wine, or 45 mL spirit
2022: If you are pregnant, nursing or trying to get pregnant, avoid alcohol consumption. ; It is important that you do not consume alcohol when: You are looking for or undergoing a pregnancy. You are breastfeeding. 2015: Always avoid alcohol beverages.

2022: If you are pregnant, nursing or trying to get pregnant, avoid alcohol consumption. ; It is important that you do not consume alcohol when: You are looking for or undergoing a pregnancy. You are breastfeeding.
2022: If you are pregnant, nursing or trying to get pregnant, avoid alcohol consumption. ; It is important that you do not consume alcohol when: You are looking for or undergoing a pregnancy. You are breastfeeding.
Armenia [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Australia National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC), Australian guidelines to reduce health risks from drinking alcohol 2020  10

To prevent harm from alcohol to their unborn child, women who are pregnant or planning a pregnancy should not drink alcohol.

To prevent harm from alcohol to their unborn child, women who are pregnant or planning a pregnancy should not drink alcohol. For women who are breastfeeding, not drinking alcohol is safest for their baby.
Austria Federal Ministry of Health and Women,

Factsheet: Dialogue week on alcohol (2019)

Food pyramid for pregnant and breastfeeding women (2020)
[none found] [none found] (2020) Attention! No alcohol.

(2019) Drinking alcohol during pregnancy can cause prenatal damage. To protect the unborn child, every woman should completely abstain from alcohol during pregnancy.
(2020) Attention! No alcohol.

(2019) Alcohol and breastfeeding: Alcohol should be avoided during breast-feeding. Breastfeeding mothers should not be impaired when breastfeeding and both parents should in principle treat alcohol responsibly in the sense of their role model effect and in the interests of their children. This affects both mothers and fathers in all phases of their children's lives.
Azerbaijan [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Bahamas [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Bahrain [n/a] Sale is prohibited. [n/a] [n/a] [n/a] [n/a]
Bangladesh Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM), Dietary Guidelines for Bangladesh (2013) [none found] [none found] [none found] Avoid alcohol consumption.
Barbados [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Belarus President's Office Center for Hygiene and Epidemiology, info-materials: Proper diet during pregnancy (undated) [none found] [none found] What to avoid - ... strong tea, coffee, and especially alcohol harm your child. Did you give them up already? [none found]
Belgium

Belgian Federal Public Service Health, Campaign: Alcohol and pregnancy (2018)

See also Superior Council of Health (SCH), Advisory Report 9438 Risks of alcohol consumption (May 2018)

10 [none found] During pregnancy and breastfeeding, alcohol consumption is harmful to your baby.  During pregnancy and breastfeeding, alcohol consumption is harmful to your baby. 
Benin [none found] 14 [none found] [none found] [none found]
Bhutan [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Bolivia Ministry of Health, Food guide for the woman during the period of pregnancy and breastfeeding (2014) [none found] [none found] Do not consume alcohol beverages. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can cause physical and mental birth defects ... Even though many women know that consuming large quantities of alcohol can cause birth defects, they are not aware that moderate drinking and even light can cause damage tot he fetus. When a pregnant woman drinks alcohol, it crosses the placenta quickly and reaches the fetus. Because the fetus' body is immature, it takes much longer to metabolize alcohol than an adult body. That is why the blood alcohol level of the fetus can be even higher than that of the mother and can remain elevated for longer. Sometimes this causes permanent damage to the baby. Consuming alcohol during pregnancy increases the risk of miscarriage, low birth weight, stillbirth, and infant mortality. ... While breastfeeding, to a certain extent, alcohol enters breast milk and reaches the baby. ... It is recommended that women who breastfeed abstain completely from drinking alcohol. Consuming alcohol, even if it does not affect the caloric content of breast milk, significantly reduces its volume, influences its taste, and alters the child's sleep-wake cycle, although the mechanisms for this change are unknown.
Bosnia and Herzegovina Institute for Public Health, Guide on nutrition for the adult population (2004) 10 [none found] Pregnant women should refrain from drinking alcohol! [none found]
Botswana Ministry of Health, Making Pregnancy Safer (undated) [none found] Couples should: avoid alcohol. What one should do when they realize they are pregnant: avoid alcohol. [none found]
Brazil Ministry of Health, Pregnancy Booklet (2018) 13.4 [none found] When pregnant: It is important not to drink alcohol beverages. … avoid alcohol beverages. [none found]
Brunei Darussalam [n/a] Sale is prohibited. [n/a] [n/a] [n/a] [n/a]
Bulgaria Ministry of Health, Recommendations for healthy eating before and during pregnancy and while breastfeeding (2008) [none found] It is recommended that women who are trying to become pregnant not consume alcohol. If you consume alcohol beverages, quantities should be limited: no more than one or two units of alcohol once or twice a week. One unit is equivalent to a small glass of wine or one glass of beer or 25 ml of spirits. Drinking alcohol during pregnancy can cause fetal harm therefore pregnant women are advised not to consume alcohol beverages. If they do consume alcohol, to ensure minimal risk to the baby, pregnant women may consume no more than one glass of wine or beer or 25ml of spirits once a week. While breastfeeding it is recommended not to consume alcohol beverages or to severely limit their consumption.
Burkina Faso [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Burundi [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Cabo Verde [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Cambodia [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Cameroon [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Canada Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse, Low-risk Drinking Guidelines (2018)
The CCSA is conducting a review of the guidelines in 2020-2022.

Public Health Agency of Canada, The Sensible Guide to a Healthy Pregnancy
13.6 Low-risk Drinking Guidelines: The safest choice is to drink no alcohol at all. Low-risk Drinking Guidelines: The safest choice is to drink no alcohol at all. 

The Sensible Guide to a Healthy Pregnancy: There is no safe amount or safe time to drink alcohol during pregnancy.
Low-risk Drinking Guidelines: The safest choice is to drink no alcohol at all.
Central African Republic [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Chile Chile Crece Contigo (CCC), integrated infant protection web portal established by Law 20.379 as part of the Multi-sector Social Protection System

National Service for Prevention and Rehabilitation of Drug and Alcohol Use (SENDA) Alcohol
14 [none found] CCC - Prenatal care: In addition to good nutrition recommendations, avoid substances that have a negative effect on your pregnancy. No to alcohol - The alcohol the mother drinks passes through the placenta, and so the child also receives it. It has been established that children of mothers who are drinkers can present with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, which causes low birth weight and possibly mental retardation.

SENDA: For pregnant women, the quantity does not matter, any quantity is risky and they should not drink alcohol.
CCC - Recommendations for breastfeeding: Do not drink alcohol.
China Ministry of Health and Chinese Nutrition Society, Chinese Dietary Guidelines (2016) [none found] [none found] Pregnant women should not drink alcohol. Breastfeeding women should not drink alcohol.
Chinese Taipei Health Promotion Administration of the Ministry of Health and Welfare,
Eat smart: Healthy eating habits (2021, based on 2018 Dietary index handbook)
Maternity Care website
Effects of tobacco, alcohol, betel nut and drugs on the fetus (2020)
General dietary principles for pregnant women (undated) 
Breastfeeding diet (undated)
10 [none found] Eat smart: Healthy eating habits (2021): Never drink alcohol during pregnancy.

​Effects of tobacco, alcohol, betel nut and drugs on the fetus (2020, unofficial translation): Alcohol may cause health risks no matter how much alcohol is consumed during pregnancy. In addition to  miscarriage, early placental abruption and stillbirth, for a pregnant woman who drinks heavily, alcohol will enter the fetus through the placenta, risks include affecting the growth of the fetus in the uterus, and lead to ... fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)...

General dietary principles for pregnant women (undated): Pregnant and breastfeeding women should reduce or avoid the following foods: … alcohol
General dietary principles for pregnant women (undated): Pregnant and breastfeeding women should reduce or avoid the following foods: … alcohol

Breastfeeding diet (undated): Reduce or avoid the following foods: … alcohol
Colombia Colombian Institute of Family Wellbeing,  Food-based dietary guidelines for pregnant and breastfeeding women and for children under 2 (2018) [none found] [none found] Do not consume alcohol beverages while pregnant. Do not consume alcohol beverages while breastfeeding.
Comoros [none found]
Consumption is prohibited for Muslims.
[none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Congo, Democratic Republic [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Congo, Republic of [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Costa Rica Institute on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence, What happens when one drinks alcohol (2022) 8 [none found] Are there situations in which one should not drink ANY alcohol? Yes. For example: ... if you are pregnant or breastfeeding; ... Are there situations in which one should not drink ANY alcohol? Yes. For example: ... if you are pregnant or breastfeeding; ...
Cote d'Ivoire [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Croatia Croatian National Institute of Public Health,
Drinking alcohol beverages (2015)
10 [none found] [none found] [none found]
Cuba Ministry of Health, Prevention of congenital heart disease (2020) [none found] Women of reproductive age (preconception) and in early stages of gestation: ... Eliminate toxic habits (tobacco and drinking alcohol beverages). Women of reproductive age (preconception) and in early stages of gestation: ... Eliminate toxic habits (tobacco and drinking alcohol beverages). [none found]
Cyprus Ministry of Health, Breastfeeding: Off to the best start for your baby (2014) [none found] [none found] [none found] Avoid alcohol.
Denmark National Board of Health,
Note on the Danish Health and Medicines Authority's announcements about alcohol consumption (2022)
Healthy Habits Before, During and After Pregnancy (2019)
12 2022: Pregnant women and women trying to conceive are not advised to drink alcohol.

2019: Before: Prepare for a healthy pregnancy by ... avoiding smoking and alcohol. [I]t can be difficult to know the exact time of conception, you should refrain from drinking alcohol if you are planning pregnancy. However, if the pregnancy is unplanned and you have been drinking alcohol, there is only rarely cause for concern.
2022: Pregnant women and women trying to conceive are not advised to drink alcohol.

2019: During: Avoid alcohol and smoking, which can harm the baby's development. If a pregnant woman drinks alcohol, the baby gets the same alcohol concentration in the blood as the mother. The alcohol is absorbed into the woman's blood and passes through the placenta to the baby.
Alcohol is harmful to the baby's development throughout pregnancy.
We do not know the limit for how little the mother can drink and at the same time be sure that the child is not harmed. Therefore, it is recommended to completely avoid alcohol. [Fetal effects of] alcohol are lifelong and their extent depends on how much the woman drinks. The most serious injuries can be brain damage and heart failure.
2022: Breast-feeding women are advised to exercise caution when consuming alcohol.

2019: Alcohol passes into breast milk and there is the same concentration of alcohol in breast milk as in the blood. For every drink you consume, it takes 2-3 hours before the alcohol is out of the milk again. You can not speed up the process of getting alcohol out of breast milk by, for example, expressing the milk. The young child is vulnerable to alcohol. Alcohol can inhibit milk production and cause the baby to sleep worse.
Be restrained with alcohol when breastfeeding.
Djibouti [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Dominica [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Dominican Republic [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Ecuador Ministry of Public Health,
Step by step for a full childhood (2015)
Care for the health, physical activity, and nutrition of women who are pregnant and mothers who are breastfeeding (2014)
[none found] [none found] [none found] Step by step… : While breastfeeding, do not drink alcohol.
Egypt [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Eritrea [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Estonia Health Development Institute,

Alkoinfo.ee (2022) 

Toitumine.ee
Nutrition at different stages of life>Pregnant women (2022)
Nutrition at different stages of life>Babies>Breastfeeding (2022)
10 Alkoinfo.ee 2022: In men, alcohol abuse over time can damage the testicles and reduce testosterone levels. This in turn can lead to sexual indifference, impotence and even sterility.

Toitumine.ee: Drinking large amounts of alcohol affects a woman's ability to conceive. ... it is recommended that pregnant women and women who plan to become pregnant completely stop drinking alcohol.
Alkoinfo.ee: Alcohol should also not be consumed by pregnant or breastfeeding women.

Toitumine.ee: Consumption of large amounts of alcohol during the early stages of pregnancy (more than 80 g of spirits per day) can significantly affect the development of the fetus. Therefore, it is recommended that pregnant women and women who plan to become pregnant completely stop drinking alcohol.
Alkoinfo.ee: Alcohol should also not be consumed by pregnant or breastfeeding women.

Toitumine.ee:
Alcohol is also absorbed into breast milk and cause alcohol poisoning in infants.
Breast-feeding may be impaired if: ...The mother's harmful habits (smoking, alcohol) change the taste of breast milk, can reduce the amount of breast milk and cause restlessness in the baby;...
El Salvador [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Eswatini [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Ethiopia Ministry of Health, Ethiopia Public Health Institute, Food-Based Dietary Guidelines Booklet 2022 225g beer, 300g tej, 220g wine, 230g tela [none found] Drinking alcohol during pregnancy is discouraged because it affects your baby's health. Taking alcohol during pregnancy puts your baby at risk of premature birth, brain damage, impaired growth and development, congenital disabilities like heart defects, hearing or vision problems and low birth-weight (<2.5 kg at delivery). Even a small amount of alcohol intake during pregnancy can impair the health of both baby and mother. [none found]
Equatorial Guinea [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Fiji Ministry of Health and Medical Services, Alcohol: Healthy you (2015) 

National Food and Nutrition Center, Food and Health Guidelines for Fiji (2013)
10 Alcohol Healthy you: You should not drink any alcohol when pregnant or planning to become pregnant. Alcohol Healthy you: Drinking alcohol when pregnant poses many harmful risks to your unborn baby. It is not safe for pregnant women to drink any alcohol. 

Food and Health Guidelines: Excessive alcohol consumption by the mother during pregnancy slows the growth of the baby: it can also lead to premature births, deaths and miscarriages.
[none found]
Finland National Institute for Health and Welfare,
Factsheet: Alcohol health risks for healthy adults (2016)
Risky alcohol use by parents (2021)
The Nordic Nutrition Recommendations are being updated in 2019-2022.
12 (2016): Heavy alcohol use reduces both women's and men's fertility. Excessive alcohol use should be avoided if planning to become pregnant. (2021): Abstaining completely from alcohol is recommended while pregnant to avoid harm to the unborn child.

(2016): The amount of alcohol exposure that poses risk for the fetus is not known, so it is safest to give up the consumption of alcohol during pregnancy.
(2021): Alcohol consumption should also be avoided during breastfeeding. The level of alcohol in the bloodstream corresponds to the level in milk. In the case of single feeding, the child receives approximately five per cent of the alcohol dose relative to the mother's weight. If the mother has drunk alcohol, breast-feeding should be avoided as long as the alcohol is in the bloodstream. In case of exposure, breastfeeding is recommended to be avoided as long as alcohol is circulating and for at least 3-4 hours after drinking alcohol.

(2016): Heavy episodic drinking during breastfeeding may be harmful to the child's development and from a mother-child relationship point of view.
France Alcool-info-service (2022), based on Public Health France and National Cancer Institute, Expert opinion (May 2017) commissioned by the Interministerial Mission for Combating Drugs and Addictive Behaviors (MILDECA) and the Ministry of Health Directorate General of Health (DGS). 10 [none found] Alcool-info-service (2022):
In the following situations, it is safest not to drink alcohol at all: For the duration of pregnancy and while breastfeeding.
What amount can a pregnant woman drink without risk? Current scientific evidence does not allow us to determine a level of alcohol consumption or a quantity of alcohol that would be without risk for the unborn child. By virtue of the precautionary principle, it is recommended that pregnant women abstain from any alcohol consumption for the entire duration of their pregnancy.
Are wine and beer less dangerous for the fetus than spirits? All alcohol beverages (wine, beer, rum, vodka, whiskey, pastis, etc.) contain the same molecule called ethanol, which is dangerous to the fetus. So they carry the same danger. All drinking during pregnancy may present a risk. Adverse effects do no always appear (in the same way that not all smokers will have ling cancer). Actually, women who have drunk alcohol during pregnancy may have children who are fine. These particular cases are not significant, it is necessary to study a large number of people to determine the risks: that is what public health scientists do.
Alcool-info-service (2022):
In the following situations, it is safest not to drink alcohol at all: For the duration of pregnancy and while breastfeeding.
There is no research reporting serious developmental problems in infants exposed to alcohol from breastfeeding. However, alcohol passes into breast milk and your child's immature organism is susceptible to it. In addition, alcohol consumption can disturb breastfeeding by reducing lactation and 'letdown', sometimes associated with excessive sleepiness in the baby.
Limiting the baby's exposure to alcohol - That's why it is recommended not to drink alcohol when breastfeeding. Nevertheless, if you would like to drink while breastfeeding, be advised to wait 2-3 hours after a moderate consumption before offering the breast. If you plan a drinking night, you could pump you milk ahead of the event to give to the baby so you can delay the next feeding for 12 hours. If you have other questions about drinking alcohol while breastfeeding, you can speak to a professional (pediatrician, midwife, etc.)
Gabon National Nutrition Center, National Dietary Guidelines and Recommendations for Healthy Diets - Gabon (2021)
[Full text review pending]
[none found] [none found] Key message 2: Drink water according to your thirst instead of alcoholic beverages, especially pregnant and breastfeeding women. Key message 2: Drink water according to your thirst instead of alcoholic beverages, especially pregnant and breastfeeding women.
Gambia, The [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Georgia National Center for Disease Control and Public Health, General facts you should know about alcohol consumption and health (2020) 10 [none found] Drinking even a small amount of alcohol during pregnancy poses a risk to the health of the baby. [none found]
Germany Federal Center for Health Education, Know your limitNutrition recommendations during pregnancy 

Center for Addiction Issues, Factsheet: Alcohol and Health Risks (2015)
[none found] [none found] It makes little difference whether you drink alcohol during the first weeks of pregnancy or toward the end. Alcohol consumption poses a major threat to the child's development in all stages of pregnancy. Therefore refrain entirely from alcohol beverages throughout pregnancy and while breastfeeding your baby's sake. 

The best protection for the unborn child is total abstinence from alcohol throughout pregnancy. However, at the very beginning of pregnancy many women still do not know that they are pregnant. If pregnant women have drunk alcohol in the initial days ... they should not fear the worst. In advanced pregnancy: abstinence by the mother is the only reliable method to protect the unborn child from the possibility of serious damage, such as a severe fetal alcohol syndrome.
If you are breastfeeding: drinking alcohol not only increases your blood alcohol level, but also the alcohol content in breast milk. Avoid alcohol during lactation and abstain as long as you breastfeed your child. Only with non-alcohol milk can your baby can find a restful sleep-wake cycle.
Ghana [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Greece Ministry of Health and Institute of Preventive, Environmental and Occupational Medicine (Prolepsis),
Tips for women who want a pregnancy 2022,
Diet during pregnancy 2022,
Diet during breastfeeding 2022
330mL beer of 4-5%ABV, 125mL wine of 11-13%ABV, or 40-45mL spirits of 40%ABV Tips for women who want a pregnancy 2022: Excessive consumption of alcohol and caffeine may adversely affect fertility. If you consume them, make sure: ... alcohol consumption should not exceed 1 drink per day. Diet during pregnancy 2022: When a pregnant woman consumes alcohol, it is transferred to her blood and from there to the baby's blood. The amount or any particular type of alcohol (e.g., wine, beer) that is considered safe to consume during pregnancy has not been determined. For this reason, the safest recommendation that can be given to a pregnant woman is to avoid the consumption of alcohol beverages. Note that heavy alcohol consumption is absolutely contraindicated, due to its correlation with the appearance of specific syndromes of the newborn. Diet during breastfeeding 2022: When breastfeeding, it is okay to consume one drink per day, preferably immediately after feeding to ensure several hours pass until the next feeding.
Grenada [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Guatemala Ministry of Health and Social Support, Dietary guidelines (2012) [none found] [none found] ... 10. Avoid drinking alcohol because it harms health. ... During pregnancy, it crosses the placenta and also passes into breast milk. In both cases the baby suffers serious consequences. ... 10. Avoid drinking alcohol because it harms health. ... During pregnancy, it crosses the placenta and also passes into breast milk. In both cases the baby suffers serious consequences.
Guinea [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Guinea-Bissau [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Guyana [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Haiti [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Honduras [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Hungary [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Iceland Directorate of Health,
Alcohol and drug prevention (2021)
Alcohol and drug prevention and infants (2021)
Alcohol, drugs and pregnancy (2005)

The Nordic Nutrition Recommendations are being updated in 2019-2023.
[none found] 2021: Women who are trying to conceive are also advised to abstain from alcohol altogether - for safety. 2021: Pregnant women should completely abstain from drinking alcohol. / Pregnant women are encouraged not to consume alcohol or other drugs. There are no known thresholds or safety criteria for the unborn child and precaution should apply. It doesn't matter what type of alcohol is consumed, all alcohol is harmful to the fetus. The blood system of the child and mother is interconnected and alcohol has an easy pathway to the baby's organs, which are not mature enough to break the alcohol down. As a result, the fetus is more affected than the mother. It is well-established that maternal alcohol drinking during pregnancy can have serious harmful effects on the fetus and lead to birth defects.

2005: As soon as it is clear that a child is coming, the expectant mother should cease consuming alcohol. If this is difficult, it is important to seek advice from the doctor or midwife who care for her. They can provide support and advice. Even if a woman consumed alcohol during the first weeks of pregnancy before she realizes that she is pregnant, it is always beneficial to stop consumption.
2005: It is desirable to limit alcohol consumption while the baby is breastfeeding.
India National Health Portal (under Ministry of Health and Family Welfare),
Healthy diet (2016)
Pregnancy (2018)
[none found] [none found] Healthy diet (2016): Do not consume alcohol and tobacco. It is harmful for the health of mother as well as child.   

Pregnancy (2018): What are the risk factors? Alcohol: If a pregnant mother drink alcohol, so does baby. Pregnant women should not drink alcohol to eliminate the chance of giving birth to a baby with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). FASD involves a range of harmful effects that can occur when a fetus is exposed to alcohol. The effects can be mild to severe. Children born with a severe form of FASD can have abnormal facial features, severe learning disabilities, behavioral problems, and other problems.
Healthy diet (2016): Do not consume alcohol and tobacco. It is harmful for the health of mother as well as child.
Indonesia [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Iran [n/a] Sale is prohibited. [n/a] [n/a] [n/a] [n/a]
Iraq [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Ireland Health Service Executive,
Weekly low-risk drinking guidelines (2019)
Alcohol and pregnancy (2020)
Alcohol and breastfeeding (2019)

 

10 No amount of alcohol at any stage of pregnancy is safe for your baby.
You may be planning to become pregnant. If you are, aim to stop drinking while you are trying to conceive (get pregnant) and during your pregnancy. This will avoid any risk to your baby.
 
No amount of alcohol at any stage of pregnancy is safe for your baby.
If you are pregnant and have been drinking alcohol: You are advised to stop drinking alcohol for the rest of your pregnancy. If you do, your baby has a better chance of healthy brain growth and development. Some women find it hard to stop drinking. If you find it hard to stop, your GP, midwife or a local substance misuse service can help you.
It’s best to avoid drinking alcohol until your baby is more than 1 month old. In the first few weeks, you and your baby are getting used to breastfeeding. This is called establishing breastfeeding. If you choose to drink alcohol once breastfeeding is established, there are steps you can take to avoid passing alcohol to your baby through your milk.
Follow these safety guidelines if you are planning to drink alcohol:
Don't drink in the first month of your baby's life.
Follow the low-risk drinking guidelines.
Wait 2 hours per standard drink before breastfeeding.
Plan ahead if you think you will be drinking more than 2 standard drinks - get someone to babysit your child.
Express enough milk before drinking so that your babysitter can feed your baby. Express milk beforehand if you plan to drink more than one or two standard drinks. Your baby can have expressed milk if they need a feed while you have alcohol in your system.
Israel Ministry of Health, Proper nutrition During Pregnancy [none found] Alcohol consumption should be avoided prior to becoming pregnant and throughout the entire pregnancy. Alcohol consumption should be avoided prior to becoming pregnant and throughout the entire pregnancy. Alcohol is conveyed directly to the fetus during pregnancy via the placenta, and during nursing it is conveyed via breast milk.
Italy National Center for Epidemiology, Surveillance and Health Promotion,

Alcohol: Do you know your drinks? The more you know, the lower the risk (2016) 

Alcohol during pregnancy: Are you sure? (2015)

Ministry of Health, Alcohol: Zero, or as little as possible (2022)
12 There are situations where complete abstention from alcohol consumption is recommended: If planning pregnancy, pregnant or breastfeeding. 

If you are planning to have a child or if you are pregnant the best choice for the mother and the unborn child is not to consume alcohol beverages of any kind.
2015: There are situations where complete abstention from alcohol consumption is recommended: If planning pregnancy, pregnant or breastfeeding. 

If you are planning to have a child or if you are pregnant the best choice for the mother and the unborn child is not to consume alcohol beverages of any kind.
There are situations where complete abstention from alcohol consumption is recommended: If planning pregnancy, pregnant or breastfeeding.
 
Jamaica [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Japan Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare,
Drinking guidelines (2021)
Alcohol units (2021)
20 [none found] Do not drink alcohol during pregnancy and breastfeeding, as it may inhibit the development of the fetus and cause fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcohol also enters breast milk and inhibits infant development. Do not drink alcohol during pregnancy and breastfeeding, as it may inhibit the development of the fetus and cause fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcohol also enters breast milk and inhibits infant development.
Jordan [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Kazakhstan [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Kenya Ministry of Health and Nutrition Association of Kenya, National guidelines for healthy diets and physical activity 2017 [none found] [none found] Do not take alcohol. [none found]
Kiribati [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Korea, Democratic People's Republic [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Korea, Republic of Korea Health Promotion Foundation, 
Low-risk Drinking Guidelines (2013)
National Dietary Guidelines (2017)
8 Low-risk Drinking Guidelines 2013: You should not drink alcohol at all. National Dietary Guidelines (2017): Drinking during pregnancy intensifies the risk of having a baby with birth problem

Low-risk Drinking Guidelines 2013: You should not drink alcohol at all.
Low-risk Drinking Guidelines 2013: You should not drink alcohol at all.
Kuwait [n/a] Sale is prohibited. [n/a] [n/a] [n/a] [n/a]
Kyrgyzstan [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Lao, People's Democratic Republic [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Latvia Ministry of Health, Healthy eating tips for women during pregnancy (2017)
Center for disease prevention and control, Women's nutrition during breastfeeding (2022)
12 It is safest not to drink alcohol at all during pregnancy or when planning a pregnancy. Do not drink alcohol during pregnancy as it is seriously detrimental to the baby's development and health. ... It is safest not to drink alcohol at all during pregnancy or when planning a pregnancy. Alcohol consumed during pregnancy enters the baby's bloodstream from the woman's bloodstream through the placenta and reaches the same concentration as the mother's blood in about an hour. ... Do not use alcohol.
Lebanon [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Lesotho [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Liberia [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Libya [n/a] Sale and consumption are prohibited. [n/a] [n/a] [n/a] [n/a]
Liechtenstein Users of the Addiction Prevention Liechtenstein website are referred to:
German Main Office for Addiction Issues (DHS), Everything OK with alcohol? (2019)
Swiss Addiction Foundation (Sucht Schweiz), Pregnancy without alcohol (2021)
[none found] [none found] DHS (2019): For pregnant women, consumption of very small amounts can also lead to negative consequences.

Sucht Schweiz: ​Alcohol can impair brain development and cause disabilities in the child. Avoid alcohol while pregnant.
[none found]
Lithuania Ministry of Health, Health Training and Disease Prevention Center (SMPLC)
Dietary recommendations for pregnant and breastfeeding women (2021)
10 [none found] Women consuming alcohol during pregnancy can give birth to newborns with congenital malformations.
There is no safe dose for alcohol consumption; alcohol in any amount or form is harmful during pregnancy planning, pregnancy, and breastfeeding.
It is safest not to drink alcohol while breastfeeding.
It is safest not to drink alcohol while breastfeeding.
Luxembourg National Center for Addition Prevention, Alcohol (2020)

Ministry of Health,​
Thematic webpage (2022) 
0% Alcohol: Information for your pregnancy (2013)
10-12 2013: Give up alcohol when planning to become pregnant, or as soon as you find out that you are. 2022: Consumption of alcohol beverages during pregnancy or while breastfeeding, even in small amounts, can have serious effects on the child's health. "Zero alcohol during in pregnancy and breastfeeding" is the motto all women should adopt for their health and the health of their baby. Alcohol consumed by the pregnant woman passes into the mother's blood, crosses the placenta and then circulates in the baby's blood. ... The main harmful effects of alcohol on the baby are on its nervous system. Various problems can arise depending  on the level of intoxication: premature birth, low birth weight, behavioral problems, physical and psychological anomalies.

2020: Refrain from alcohol during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

2013: Give up alcohol when planning to become pregnant, or as soon as you find out that you are.
2022: ... "Zero alcohol during in pregnancy and breastfeeding" is the motto all women should adopt for their health and the health of their baby. ... Breastfeeding women should know that alcohol also passes into breast milk.

2020: Refrain from alcohol during pregnancy and breastfeeding

2013: While breastfeeding, the safest choice is also to give up alcohol.
Madagascar [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Malaysia Ministry of Health, Malaysian Dietary Guidelines 2010 [none found] [none found] [none found] When breastfeeding, mothers should be encouraged not to use alcohol and given opportunities and support to abstain.
Malawi [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Maldives [n/a] Consumption by citizens is prohibited. [n/a] [n/a] [n/a] [n/a]
Malta Parliamentary Secretariat for Health, Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Directorate,
How much is too much? (2017)
Dietary guidelines for Maltese adults: Booklet for consumers (2016)
8 [none found] How much is too much? 2017: Do not drink at all: When pregnant or breastfeeding...

Dietary guidelines 2016: Avoid alcohol completely if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.
How much is too much? 2017: Do not drink at all: When pregnant or breastfeeding...

Dietary guidelines 2016: Avoid alcohol completely if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.
Marshall Islands [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Mauritania [n/a] Sale is prohibited. [n/a] [n/a] [n/a] [n/a]
Mauritius [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Micronesia, Federated States of [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Mexico National Commission against Addictions (CONADIC),
Alcohol beverage consumption on the National Day of Healthy Distancing for COVID-19 (2020)
Preventing consumption of alcohol during the workweek (2019)

Ministry of Health,
Dietary and physical activity guidelines in the context of overweight and obesity in the Mexican population (2015)
Young women and alcohol consumption (2020)
10-13 2019: Do not drink if you are pregnant or suspect you may be. Alcohol consumption can seriously affect the mother and the developing baby. 2020: Consumption of alcohol during pregnancy increases the risk of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

2019: Do not drink if you are pregnant or suspect you may be. Alcohol consumption can seriously affect the mother and the developing baby.

​2015: [pregnant women:] Recommended to avoid alcohol consumption.
-
Moldova, Republic of [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Mongolia [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Montenegro [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Morocco [none found]
Consumption is prohibited for Muslims.
[none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Mozambique [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Myanmar
[none found]

Note: FAO's Myanmar food-based dietary guidelines for pregnant and lactating women (2022) includes: "Certain items to avoid during pregnancy and [breastfeeding] - Alcoholic drinks."
[none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Namibia [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Nauru [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Nepal [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Netherlands Health Council of the Netherlands, Scientific report on revisions to Guidelines for Healthy Eating 2015 

Nutrition Center, Guidelines for Healthy Eating 2011
10 It is recommended not to drink. It is recommended not to drink. It is recommended not to drink.
New Zealand Ministry of Health,
Helpful advice during pregnancy (2022)
Eating and Activity Guidelines 2020

Health Promotion Agency, Alcohol.org.nz (2022)
10 Stop drinking alcohol if you could be pregnant, are pregnant or are trying to get pregnant. ...  if you are trying to get pregnant, it’s best not to drink alcohol. Alcohol can harm a baby from conception onwards.
If you can’t stop your drinking or are worried about the amount of alcohol you drink, get help! Talk to your midwife (or specialist doctor), doctor or nurse. They will be able to refer you to a local service for help and support. The Alcohol Drug Helpline is also available for free, confidential information, help and support: 0800 787 797 (24 hours a day), free text 8681.
Stop drinking alcohol if you could be pregnant, are pregnant or are trying to get pregnant. There is no known safe level of alcohol consumption during pregnancy. ... Alcohol can harm a baby from conception onwards.
If you can’t stop your drinking or are worried about the amount of alcohol you drink, get help! Talk to your midwife (or specialist doctor), doctor or nurse. They will be able to refer you to a local service for help and support. The Alcohol Drug Helpline is also available for free, confidential information, help and support: 0800 787 797 (24 hours a day), free text 8681.
If you choose to drink alcohol while breastfeeding, it is suggested that you wait at least 2 hours before breastfeeding your baby for each standard drink. For example, if you have 2 standard drinks you should wait 4 hours before you breastfeed.
If you can’t stop your drinking or are worried about the amount of alcohol you drink, get help! Talk to your midwife (or specialist doctor), doctor or nurse. They will be able to refer you to a local service for help and support. The Alcohol Drug Helpline is also available for free, confidential information, help and support: 0800 787 797 (24 hours a day), free text 8681.
The Feed Safe app helps a breastfeeding woman to make safe decisions by using height, weight and alcohol intake to estimate when her breast milk should be free of alcohol. It is based on the official guidelines of Australia’s National Health and Medical Research Council.
Nicaragua [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Niger [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Nigeria Federal Ministry of Health, National Nutritional Guideline on Non-Communicable Disease Prevention, Control and Management (2014) [none found] [none found] Pregnant women: avoid alcohol. Breastfeeding women: avoid alcohol.
North Macedonia Ministry of Health, Nutrition Guidelines for the Population of Macedonia (2014) 14.2 Women who are pregnant or plan to become pregnant should avoid alcohol altogether. Women who are pregnant or plan to become pregnant should avoid alcohol altogether. There is no safe level of alcohol which is allowed to be consumed during pregnancy. [none found]
Norway Directorate of Health,
Advice for women who are breastfeeding (2019)

Directorate of e-health, Pregnancy and alcohol page (2017)

The Nordic Nutrition Recommendations are being updated in 2019-2022.
[none found] (2017) You should always avoid alcohol while pregnant or trying to get pregnant. The chances of getting pregnant increase if you do not drink alcohol, because alcohol reduces fertility. (2017) If you are concerned because you drank alcohol in early pregnancy, you should talk to your midwife or doctor. ... you are not alone in this situation. The less you drank, the lower the risk of fetal development is affected. Think ahead and stay completely away from alcohol for the remainder of the pregnancy. Every day without alcohol will give the child a better start in life. (2019) Abstain from alcohol until at least six weeks after birth. It may be advisable to breastfeed before consuming alcohol and to wait some time before the next breastfeeding. For example, a glass of wine can give a per mille of 0.3 to 0.4. With an alcohol degradation of 0.15 per mille per hour, the alcohol will be out of the blood after two to three hours. Mom can also pump out milk before she drinks alcohol.

(2017) Newborns are immature, with minimal ability to break down even small amounts of alcohol. Therefore, you should abstain completely from alcohol until at least six weeks after birth. If drinking later on while breastfeeding, you should stick to small amounts.
Oman [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Pakistan [n/a] Sale is prohibited. [n/a] [n/a] [n/a] [n/a]
Palau [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Panama Ministry of Health, Breastfeeding pamphlet (2018) [none found] [none found] [none found] Do not consume alcohol if you are breastfeeding.
Papua New Guinea [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Paraguay National Nutrition and Food Institute (INAN), Food guidelines booklet (2021) & Maternal breastfeeding and infant nutrition (undated) [none found] Maternal and infant nutrition: A woman of reproductive age who is planning a pregnancy or who is sexually active, ... In this period it's important to ... Reduce consumption of alcohol beverages.
Pregnant women should not consume alcohol beverages because they may harm the baby.
Food guidelines (2017): Pregnant and breastfeeding women should not consume alcohol beverages because they may harm the baby. Newborns whose mothers have consumed alcohol beverages during pregnancy can resent physical, mental, and growth problems, known as Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Food guidelines (2017): Pregnant and breastfeeding women should not consume alcohol beverages because they may harm the baby.
Peru Ministry of Health,
Specialists warn that pregnant women should not drink alcohol (2011)
Ministry of Health recommends avoiding excessive alcohol consumption (2012)
[none found] Do not consume alcohol beverages if you are pregnant, breastfeeding, or caring for children.

If you are planning pregnancy, are at risk of it, or are pregnant, do not drink alcohol because your child could be born with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. ... Alcohol consumption during pregnancy increases the risk of miscarriage, premature delivery (before 37 complete weeks of gestation) and low birth weight (less than 2,500g). They are also more exposed to suffocation, brain hemorrhages, and infections.
Do not consume alcohol beverages if you are pregnant, breastfeeding, or caring for children.

If you are planning pregnancy, are at risk of it, or are pregnant, do not drink alcohol because your child could be born with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. ... Alcohol consumption during pregnancy increases the risk of miscarriage, premature delivery (before 37 complete weeks of gestation) and low birth weight (less than 2,500g). They are also more exposed to suffocation, brain hemorrhages, and infections.
Do not consume alcohol beverages if you are pregnant, breastfeeding, or caring for children.
Philippines Food and Nutrition Research Institute, Nutritional Guidelines for Filipinos (2012) 12 [none found]
Pregnant women should abstain from consuming alcohol beverages because alcohol may cause problems like spontaneous abortion, fetal alcohol syndrome, impaired fetal development, possible malformations and other birth problems of the fetus.
[none found]
Poland State Agency for Prevention of Alcohol Related Problems (PARPA), Risky and harmful drinking

​National Center for Nutrition Education (NCEŻ), Alcohol during pregnancy (2017)
10 [none found] NCEŻ: Regardless of the amount, consuming alcohol while pregnant can negatively affect the baby. There is no safe dose for alcohol consumption while pregnant. Symptoms caused by alcohol can manifest themselves both very early, just after birth, and in the later years of the baby's life.

PARPA: Some people should not drink alcohol at all: ... pregnant women and nursing mothers (due to the risk of fetal harm and negative impact on the health of the child) ...
PARPA: Some people should not drink alcohol at all: ... pregnant women and nursing mothers (due to the risk of fetal harm and negative impact on the health of the child) ...
Portugal Ministry of Health,  New Daily Food Choice Wheel (2020) [none found] [none found] Alcohol beverages contain, by definition, ethyl alcohol or ethanol. Their consumption is not recommended at all for ... pregnant and breastfeeding women. Alcohol beverages contain, by definition, ethyl alcohol or ethanol. Their consumption is not recommended at all for ... pregnant and breastfeeding women.
Qatar [n/a] Sale and consumption are prohibited. [n/a] [n/a] [n/a] [n/a]
Romania National Center for Evaluation and Health Promotion (2019) 12 ​For women planning pregnancy, the safest option is not to drink alcohol. You should not drink alcohol if you are sexually active and not using an effective method of contraception. Pregnant women should not consume any alcohol during pregnancy. [none found]
Russian Federation Ministry of Health: Moscow Scientific-Practical Center of Addiction; National Medical Research Center for Preventive Medicine of the Ministry of Healthcare, prevention information materials (2019) 10 [none found] Prevention information materials (2019): ... there are situations when any use of alcohol is extremely undesirable, for example, when driving, pregnancy, etc.
Women's alcoholism (undated): Even occasional use of low-alcohol beverages can increase the risk of miscarriage of the pregnancy at any time and the risk of giving birth to a weak, non-viable baby. Almost always, the use of narcotic substances and alcohol beverages during pregnancy leads to multiple combined pathologies of the child. Even if an outwardly healthy baby is born, often in the future, severe complications of intrauterine alcoholism or drug addiction of the child appear, such as convulsive syndrome, severe forms of epilepsy, cerebral palsy, and sudden death syndrome.
​Alcohol beverage containers must bear a warning that they are contraindicated for pregnant and nursing women. [Law No.49 of 2007]
[none found]
Rwanda [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Samoa [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Saint Kitts and Nevis [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Saint Lucia [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Sao Tome and Principe [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Saudi Arabia [n/a] Sale is prohibited. [n/a] [n/a] [n/a] [n/a]
Senegal [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Serbia [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Seychelles Ministry of Health, Seychelles food-based dietary guidelines 2020 8 [none found] Do not drink alcohol... when pregnant and breastfeeding to prevent harming yourself and your baby.
​Pregnant women should not drink alcohol at all. Alcohol can pass from the mother’s blood into the baby’s blood where it can damage and affect the growth of the baby’s cells. Brain and spinal cord cells are likely to have the most damage. Prenatal exposure of the fetus to alcohol can lead to a condition known as ‘fetal alcohol syndrome’ which is characterized by a broad range of anomalies: pre- and postnatal growth retardation; the child having distinctive facial features including a small head, flat face, and narrow eye openings; pre-term delivery; central or craniofacial dysmorphia; neurological and behavioral disorders; cognitive function disorders, which can persist into adulthood. Pregnant women are therefore advised not to consume any kinds of alcohol during pregnancy.
Do not drink alcohol... when pregnant and breastfeeding to prevent harming yourself and your baby. ...
​During breastfeeding it is also not recommended to consume alcohol as the alcohol passes through the breast milk to the baby and can make the baby irritable and unsettled. When consumed in large amounts, alcohol can cause drowsiness, deep sleep, weakness, and abnormal weight gain in the infant, and the possibility of decreased milk-ejection reflex in the mother. Breastfeeding mothers should therefore be cautious about having alcohol as it can have an adverse effect on the baby’s health.
Sierra Leone Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry and Ministry of Health and Sanitation, Food-based dietary guidelines for healthy eating (2016) [none found] ... those who are contemplating becoming pregnant, should avoid alcohol. Good nutrition during pregnancy means that a woman: ... Does not take in any dangerous products such as alcohol, ... Pregnant women should not drink any alcohol, including beer and wine, including commercial and homemade brews and spirits throughout their pregnancy... [You] should not drink any alcohol, including beer and wine, including commercial and homemade brews and spirits ... while breastfeeding.
Singapore Health Promotion Board,
Alcohol - More than meets the eye (2022)
Pre-pregnancy preparation (2021)
Alcohol and pregnancy: Don't Toast to Your Baby's Health (2021)
8 to 10 Alcohol - More than meets the eye (December 2022): The following groups should abstain from consuming alcohol altogether: Pregnant women or those trying to conceive.

Pre-pregnancy preparation (2021): Avoid High-risk Activities: ... Avoid excessive alcohol and binge drinking. This can lead to congenital malformations and mental impairment of your baby.
Alcohol - More than meets the eye (December 2022): The following groups should abstain from consuming alcohol altogether: Pregnant women or those trying to conceive.

Alcohol and pregnancy: Don't toast to your baby's health (2021):
How Much Alcohol Is Too Much? Experts have yet to determine what is a safe amount of alcohol to drink while you are pregnant. To be safe, it may be a good idea to avoid alcohol altogether. Interestingly, women who are expecting often lose their taste for alcohol, so giving up might be easy even for regular drinkers. However, if you are still struggling to get your alcohol intake down to zero, here are some practical tips which may help you during pregnancy: Opt for a mocktail; Drink juice when you are out partying; Invite your friends to your home rather than going out; If your other half enjoys a drink after work, ask him to switch to a non-alcoholic beverage so that you can join in as well.
But What if You Drink Alcohol Heavily During Your Pregnancy? Your baby is developing and growing every day of your pregnancy. Whether it’s the head forming at Week 7, thumb sucking at Week 20, or practicing breathing at Week 32, the changes that happen over this short period of 40 weeks are quite amazing.
Alcohol and pregnancy: Don't toast to your baby's health (2021): Drinking Alcohol During Breastfeeding: While drinking alcohol during breastfeeding may not cause Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, it does disrupt your baby’s healthy development. That’s because whatever you drink or eat passes to your child through breastmilk. Excessive alcohol use during nursing can also disrupt the flow of your breastmilk, so it’s best not to consume alcohol while breastfeeding.
Slovakia [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Slovenia Institute of Public Health of Slovenia,
Risky drinking (2014)
Alcohol consumption and its dangers in pregnancy (2010)
10 (2010): Do not consume alcohol (2014): We also strongly discourage the consumption of alcohol by ... pregnant women, breastfeeding women....
(2010): Do not consume alcohol
(2014): We also strongly discourage the consumption of alcohol by ... pregnant women, breastfeeding women....
(2010): Do not consume alcohol
Solomon Islands [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Somalia [n/a] Sale is prohibited. [n/a] [n/a] [n/a] [n/a]
South Africa Department of Health,
MomConnect mobile pregnancy care advice program (2014)
Ministry of Health, Side by Side Breastfeeding Q&A booklet 2020
[none found] [none found] MomConnect mobile pregnancy care advice program (2014): Congrats on your pregnancy! .... don't smoke or drink alcohol ; Smoking, illegal drugs and alcohol are all dangerous for you and your baby. Now is a good time to give up if you can. Ask for help at the clinic. Breastfeeding Q&A 2020: A breastfeeding mother should not drink any alcohol... A breastfeeding mother should avoid drinking alcohol completely. Alcohol passes into the mother’s milk and is then taken by the baby as they breastfeed. The baby will then sleep less, consume less milk, and may experience other health problems. It’s much safer and healthier to avoid drinking alcohol altogether
South Sudan [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Spain Ministry of Health, Social Services, and Equality,
Healthy lifestyles: Alcohol and pregnancy (2016) 
Alcohol during pregnancy pamphlet
10 Healthy Lifestyles (2016): If you are pregnant or in the process of becoming so, avoid drinking alcohol.

Alcohol and pregnancy: It is best to stop drinking alcohol several weeks before conceiving, because pregnancy can only be confirmed after several weeks. ... That is, before discontinuing contraceptive methods. 
Healthy Lifestyles (2016): Currently there is no scientific consensus on a level of risk or a threshold below which alcohol is not teratogenic, however, there is agreement on the recommendation: during pregnancy, alcohol should not be consumed. ... If you are pregnant or in the process of becoming so, avoid drinking alcohol.

Alcohol during pregnancy: Can I drink alcohol during pregnancy? No. Drinking alcohol during pregnancy increases the risk that the baby will have birth defects. 
Healthy Lifestyles (2016): The recommendation is that during breastfeeding, alcohol beverages should not be consumed, and if they are, breastfeeding should not occur until the alcohol has been eliminated by the body.
Sri Lanka [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Sudan [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Suriname Psychiatric Health Center, E-health.sr
National Anti-Drugs Council, Facts and fables
[none found] E-health.sr: Do not drink during pregnancy or if planning to become pregnant. E-health.sr: Do not drink during pregnancy or if planning to become pregnant. Facts and fables: Alcohol can reach the baby through breast milk and that is not good for its development. In addition, alcohol can make the baby sleepy and not feel like feeding much. That's why it is best to be careful with consuming alcohol while breastfeeding. Consuming one glass on a special occasion is okay, preferably consumed right after breastfeeding.
Sweden National Food Administration, Nutrition and eating habits
 Pregnancy (2022)
 Breastfeeding (2021)
~12  [none found] Alcohol can harm the baby in the womb. Research has not been able to tell if there is an amount of alcohol that is safe to drink when pregnant. Therefore, you should not drink alcohol at all when you are pregnant. Do not drink alcohol when you are pregnant, or if you suspect you may be pregnant. There are often small amounts of alcohol in "non-alcohol" beverages, such as non-alcohol beer, cider or wine. It is possible to drink moderate amounts of such drinks, ie drinks with a maximum of 0.5 volume percent alcohol. By "moderate amounts" is meant up to one liter per week (three 33 cl bottles). If everything is drunk on the same day, spread it out over a few hours so you do not drink everything at once. If the alcohol content is not on the bottle, do not drink more than a single glass a week. There is also guidance on dishes cooked with alcohol beverages. Alcohol has no positive effects on breastfeeding. According to current research, however, it involves no medical risks for the child if you consume moderate amounts of alcohol when you are breastfeeding, that is to say 1-2 glasses of wine or its equivalent 1-2 times a week. The amount of alcohol that the child can ingest with the milk is very small.
Switzerland Federal Alcohol Commission (EKAL), Guidance on alcohol consumption (2018) 10 Pregnant women and women planning to become pregnant are advised to avoid alcohol. Pregnant women and women planning to become pregnant are advised to avoid alcohol. It is also recommended to abstain while breastfeeding. Alcohol enters the infant's body through breastmilk. If a woman drinks at all while breastfeeding, she should do so only in moderation. So that the alcohol can be broken down by the body, you should wait at least 2 hours after drinking alcohol before breastfeeding again.
Syrian Arab Republic [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Tanzania, United Republic [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Tajikistan [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Thailand Ministry of Public Health,
Guidelines for Eating Healthy Food (2021)
Alcohol Hazards (2017)
[none found] [none found] Drinking while pregnant can cause harm to the unborn child, women who are pregnant or breastfeeding are to avoid alcohol Drinking while pregnant can cause harm to the unborn child, women who are pregnant or breastfeeding are to avoid alcohol
Timor Leste [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Trinidad and Tobago [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Tonga [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Tunisia [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Turkey Ministry of Health,
Turkey dietary guidelines (2019)
Nutrition during pregnancy, Nutrition during breastfeeding, Nutrition in old age (2017)
[none found] [none found] 2019: ... pregnant women, [breastfeeding] women, ... should never consume alcohol.
2017: Pregnant and breastfeeding women should not consume alcohol.
2019: ... pregnant women, [breastfeeding] women, ... should never consume alcohol.
2017: Pregnant and breastfeeding women should not consume alcohol.
Turkmenistan [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Tuvalu [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Uganda [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Ukraine [none found] 10 [none found] [none found] [none found]
United Arab Emirates [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
United Kingdom Department of Health, UK Chief Medical Officers’ Low Risk Drinking Guidelines 2016 

Department of Health, Start4Life web portal 

Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, Alcohol and Pregnancy (2022) and print version (2018)
8 The Chief Medical Officers’ guideline is that: If you think you could become pregnant, the safest approach is not to drink alcohol at all, to keep risks to your baby to a minimum. 

Alcohol and Pregnancy (RCOG): The safest approach is not to drink alcohol at all if you are pregnant, if you think you could become pregnant or if you are breastfeeding. ... If you are planning a pregnancy, it is advisable not to drink alcohol during this time. Either partner drinking heavily while trying to become pregnant, can make it more difficult to conceive.
The Chief Medical Officers’ guideline is that: If you are pregnant, the safest approach is not to drink alcohol at all, to keep risks to your baby to a minimum. Drinking in pregnancy can lead to long-term harm to the baby, with the more you drink the greater the risk. The risk of harm to the baby is likely to be low if you have drunk only small amounts of alcohol before you knew you were pregnant or during pregnancy. If you find out you are pregnant after you have drunk alcohol during early pregnancy, you should avoid further drinking. You should be aware that it is unlikely in most cases that your baby has been affected. If you are worried about alcohol use during pregnancy do talk to your doctor or midwife. 

Alcohol and Pregnancy (RCOG): The safest approach is not to drink alcohol at all if you are pregnant, if you think you could become pregnant or if you are breastfeeding. ... Avoiding alcohol during pregnancy is the safest option. There is no proven safe amount of alcohol a woman can drink during pregnancy. If you drink alcohol during pregnancy, some alcohol will pass through the placenta to your baby. The more you drink the greater is the risk of harm to your baby.... However, if you cut down or stop drinking altogether, your baby will start to grow at a normal rate. Stopping drinking at any point during pregnancy can be beneficial. However, in some instances, the effects of heavy drinking on your baby cannot be reversed.
Alcohol and Pregnancy (RCOG): The safest approach is not to drink alcohol at all if you are pregnant, if you think you could become pregnant or if you are breastfeeding. ... The safest option is to avoid alcohol during breastfeeding as alcohol can find its way into your breast milk. Regular drinking during breastfeeding may affect your baby’s development. If you do choose to drink, it is safest not to drink more than 14 units (112g) per week and best to spread your drinks evenly during the week.
United States Department of Agriculture and Department of Health and Human Services, Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2020-2025 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Alcohol and pregnancy Q&A (2022)
Breastfeeding - Alcohol (2022)

Surgeon General's Advisory on Alcohol Use in Pregnancy (2005)
14 CDC 2022: The best advice is to avoid any alcohol use when you start trying to get pregnant.
There is no known safe amount of alcohol use during your pregnancy or when you are trying to get pregnant. There is also no safe time for alcohol use during pregnancy. Alcohol can cause problems for your baby throughout your pregnancy, including before you know you are pregnant.

Dietary Guidelines 2020-2025: The Dietary Guidelines does not recommend that individuals who do not drink alcohol start drinking for any reason. There are also some people who should not drink at all, such as if they are pregnant or might be pregnant;... 


Surgeon General's Advisory 2005: A woman who is considering becoming pregnant should abstain from alcohol. Recognizing that nearly half of all births in the United States are unplanned, women of childbearing age should consult their physician and take steps to reduce the possibility of prenatal alcohol exposure.
CDC 2022: There is no known safe amount of alcohol use during your pregnancy or when you are trying to get pregnant. There is also no safe time for alcohol use during pregnancy. Alcohol can cause problems for your baby throughout your pregnancy, including before you know you are pregnant.
If you used any amount of alcohol while you were pregnant, talk with your child’s healthcare provider as soon as possible and share your concerns.

Dietary Guidelines 2020-2025: The Dietary Guidelines does not recommend that individuals who do not drink alcohol start drinking for any reason. There are also some people who should not drink at all, such as if they are pregnant or might be pregnant;...


Surgeon General's Advisory 2005: A pregnant woman should not drink alcohol during pregnancy. A pregnant woman who has already consumed alcohol during her pregnancy should stop in order to minimize further risk. 
CDC 2022: Not drinking alcohol is the safest option for breastfeeding mothers. However, moderate alcohol consumption (up to 1 drink/day) is not known to be harmful to the infant, especially if the mother waits at least 2 hours after a single drink before nursing. However, exposure to alcohol above moderate levels through breast milk could be damaging to an infant’s development, growth, and sleep patterns. Alcohol consumption above moderate levels may also impair a mother’s judgment and ability to safely care for her child. Drinking alcoholic beverages is not an indication to stop breastfeeding; however, consuming more than one drink per day is not recommended.
Uruguay Ministry of Health, Food Guide for the Uruguayan Population (2016)  10 [none found] ... pregnant women should not drink alcohol. [none found]
Uzbekistan [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Vanuatu [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic [none found]
 
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Viet Nam [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]
Yemen [n/a] Sale is prohibited. [n/a] [n/a] [n/a] [n/a]
Zambia Ministry of Agriculture, Zambia Food-Based Dietary Guidelines Technical Recommendations (2021) [none found] [none found] [none found] Helpful Tips ensure successful breastfeeding: ... 2. Avoid alcohol and smoking. They can affect the baby in many ways such as make the baby feel sleepy, nervous and irritable.
Zimbabwe [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found] [none found]